American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer

The American Cancer Society recommends screening guidelines different types of human cancer.

A. Breast cancer:
1. Yearly mammograms starting at age 40 and continuing for as long as a woman is in good health.
2. Clinical breast exam (CBE) about every 3 years for women at 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 and over
3. For some women with family history of breast cancer, MRI is recommended in addition to mammograms
Current contrives in mammograms:
1. Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening. The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. Lancet. 2012 Nov 17;380(9855):1778-86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61611-0. Epub 2012 Oct 30. Review. PubMed PMID: 23117178.
2. Duffy SW, Mackay J, Thomas S, Anderson E, Chen TH, Ellis I, Evans G, Fielder H, Fox R, Gui G, Macmillan D, Moss S, Rogers C, Sibbering M, Wallis M, Warren R, Watson E, Whynes D, Allgood P, Caunt J. Evaluation of mammographic surveillance services in women aged 40-49 years with a moderate family history of breast cancer: a single-arm cohort study. Health Technol Assess. 2013 Mar;17(11):vii-xiv, 1-95. doi: 10.3310/hta17110. PubMed PMID: 23489892.
3. Miller AB, Wall C, Baines CJ, Sun P, To T, Narod SA. Twenty five year follow-up for breast cancer incidence and mortality of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study: randomised screening trial. BMJ. 2014 Feb 11;348:g366. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g366. PubMed PMID: 24519768; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3921437.
4. Gøtzsche PC, Jørgensen KJ. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 4;6:CD001877. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001877.pub5. Review. PubMed PMID: 23737396.
5. Pace LE, Keating NL. A systematic assessment of benefits and risks to guide breast cancer screening decisions. JAMA. 2014 Apr 2;311(13):1327-35. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.1398. Review. PubMed PMID: 24691608.
B. Prostate cancer:
1.Starting at age 50, men should talk to his doctor about whether to be tested for prostate cancer
2. For African American or have a father or brother who had prostate cancer before age 65, men should have this talk with a doctor starting at age 45.
3. If he decides to be tested, he should have the PSA blood test with or without a rectal exam. The frequency of test will depend on his PSA level.
Current contrives in mammograms:
1. Pezaro C, Woo HH, Davis ID. Prostate cancer: measuring PSA. Intern Med J. 2014. May;44(5):433-40. doi:
2. Hayes JH, Barry MJ. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: a review of current evidence. JAMA. 2014 Mar 19;311(11):1143-9.doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.2085. Review. PubMed PMID: 24643604.
3. Robinson JG, Hodges EA, Davison J. Prostate-specific antigen screening: A critical review of current research and guidelines. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2014 Jan 8. doi: 10.1002/2327-6924.12094. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24399687.
4. Jessen K, Søndergaard J, Larsen PV, Thomsen JL. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Survey Comprising 174 GPs. Int J Family Med. 2013;2013:540707. doi: 10.1155/2013/540707. Epub 2013 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 24349779; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3852312.
5. Tefekli A, Tunc M. Future prospects in the diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer. Scientific WorldJournal. 2013 Sep 14;2013:347263. doi: 10.1155/2013/347263. eCollection 2013. Review. PubMed PMID: 24163619; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3791692.
6. Garg V, Gu NY, Borrego ME, Raisch DW. A literature review of cost-effectiveness analyses of prostate-specific antigen test in prostate cancer screening. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2013 Jun;13(3):327-42. doi: 10.1586/erp.13.26. Review. PubMed PMID: 23763530.